Howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2

Below are images from that day. Below are images from that day. Below are images from that day. Saving Private essay writers sydney is a pro-war movie, howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 back and forth across Europe and into the Holy Land.

But there was no flaw, in an syracuse university essay orgy of bloodshed. John Parachini’s introductory talk is a catalogue of good advice not taken. That was partly because he spent those « lost » years traveling the world on his spiritual pilgrimage. Below are images from that day. According to Alberto Abadie’s ‘Poverty, Political Freedom, and the Roots of Terrorism’ National Bureau of Economic Research « the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 of terrorism is not significantly higher for poorer countries, once other country-specific characteristics are considered.

More than three years later, 2 remains true. And yet, as Golding notes, even the U. As for reason 1 for repudiating the authority of the ICC, it effectively evaporated by July of when the Rome Statute pdf went into effect.

Senate to ratify the Rome Treaty that President Clinton signed inare the primary howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 to the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 legal prosecution of terrorist crimes against humanity. Arce, Simulation and Gaming Vol. Coalitions, Negotiations and Audience Costs’ pdfby C. O’Connor hosts a large criminology website, which includes a survey of The Criminology of Terrorism. Attempts to defend against it by hardening domestic targets cannot work, nor can one rely on pre-emption by taking the war to the howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 before they attack.

Hence, there is an urgent need to limit greatly the damage that terrorists will cause by curbing their access to nuclear arms and the materials from which they can be made In recent years, Phil Pub Pol Quart has published some of the best philosophical work on counter-terrorism warfare, including the following: Elshtain is the author of Just War Against Terror: Unlike in major wars of the past, the response to this challenge of apocalyptic howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 can be effective only if it is also widely perceived as legitimate.

And legitimacy can be attained only if the role of military force is marginal to the overall conduct of the war and the relevant frameworks of moral, legal and religious restraint are scrupulously respected. Immigration Law and Human Rights in the Wake of September 11 , » Daniel Kanstroom outlines a pragmatic, consensus-based approach to the following howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 issues in our counter-terrorism practices: There has also been some extra-curricular controversy surrounding Honderich’s book.

In this first chapter he argues that « History is a proof that peoples demand the freedom that is their running of their own lives in a place to which their history and culture attaches them. It is a freedom for which oppressed people have always fought. It is a freedom such that a threat against it in united almost all of us against Germany. It has been denied to the Palestinians.

Palestinians have been denied by their howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 exactly the right of a people that has been secured and defended by that enemy for itself.

The terrible inconsistency is plain to all who are unblinded, plain to very howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 Jews in and out of Israel.

No hair-splitting will help. It is as plain to those of us who also see that it was a howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 necessity after the second world war that the Jews come to have a howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2, in Palestine if not elsewhere.

We are engaged in a howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 with Totalitarian Political Islam and our enemy uses not only terror but also ‘popular’ riot, electoral politics, and ideological warfare. How Democracies Can Defeat Totalitarian Political Islam , » recommends a howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 of democratic internationalism as the key component of a workable political solution. Foreign Policy, » John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M.

Walt argue that « saying that Israel and the US are united by a shared howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 threat has the causal relationship backwards: Economics and the Roots of Terrorism ». Available from Princeton WebMedia. The Statements of Osama bin Laden edited by Bruce Lawrence and translated by James HowarthKhaled Abou El Fadl provides insight into the worldview of America’s elusive enemy and argues that we have unwisely bolstered its credibility.

II, issue 2, Winter How difficult would it be for terrorists to smuggle radioactive materials across U. Not very difficult at all. The proof is in this interesting report of the U.

I include included it in this section because it addresses the issue of preventive military force in the global war on terror. I shall argue that the assumption that the choice between competing norms is mistaken. The proper choice is between adherence to the JWN and the creation of new institutions that howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 allow for a more permissive norm.

Not just alternative norms but also alternative combinations of norms and institutions need to be evaluated. I strongly agree with Buchanan’s general claim that just war theory, broadly construed as ethical theorizing about the restraint of warfare, cannot simply invoke a priori intuitive principles, but must consider possibilities for normative change that might howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 from changes in global institutions.

But I’m not convinced by the suggestion that we can achieve adequate institutional restraints in the absence of an authoritative global juridical body like the ICC. There is, of howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2, no a priori reason for howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 that human rights will be protected best by the ICC as currently established. But what global system of checks and balances can adequately restrain putatively preventive and democratizing wars in the absence of juridical institutions for the enforcement of international human rights law?

Here’s the a critical response from Lars Vinx. Registration required for free access. Kamm critically examines the doctrine of double-effect and specifies conditions under which terrorism may be justifiable. Michel Chossudovsky argues that it is in  » Where was Osama on September 11, ?

This means that we can effectively resist terrorism by developing biofuels and other alternative energy sources; but it also means that one of the American howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 of the war on howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 may be the Alaskan National Wildlife Refuge. Frey argues that « terrorism has been fought in the wrong way. Instead of focusing on deterrence and preemptive strikes, we should: Christian Peacemaking and the Implications of a Global Police Force, » Sojourners Magazine, MarchTobias Winright explores the howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 for Christian participation in a globalized « community policing » approach to counter-terrrorism.

Thanks to Tobias for sharing the link. The judiciary can only be expected to howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 a marginal role in the task of specifying the limits of executive power, and so far the legislative branch has offered very little in the way of clear and effective checks and balances. Coady’s  » Defining Terrorism , » from Terrorism: The Philosophical Issues, Igor Primoratz ed. Palgrave Macmillan,pp. They see a national security apparatus in disrepair and a government that is failing to protect the public from the next attack In his view, which is more reasonable than the conventional wisdom, terrorist howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 should be considered as constitutionally and temporally limited « states of emergency » short of war.

Scheick look at the global war on terror as a « litmus test » for human rights and the rule of law. In particular, the conventional conception of the unitary executive as best suited to the demanding tasks of crisis government is subject to criticism.

Snauwaert argues that « In a number of ways the Bush Doctrine as a response to international terrorism is, tragically,undermining the international moral and howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 order, thereby undermining the very order necessary for sustainable security against terrorism. Law Enforcement, Execution or Self-Defence? A State of the Art Report » pdfThe International Political Theory Beacon, Issue 3JuneMark Rigstad presents an overview and critical assessment of how just war theoretic principles of just cause, discrimination, and proportionality have been applied in the Global War on Terror.

Also available here in html format. On March 4,in Potsdam, Rorty concluded a lecture about « Anti-terrorism and the National Security State » with these ominous words: Further attacks are likely to persuade those elites that they must destroy democracy in order to save it.

Historians may someday Ielts essay topic fashion to explain why the West’s golden age lasted only years. The saddest pages in their books will be those in which they describe how the citizens of the democracies, by their craven acquiescence in governmental secrecy, helped bring about the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2.

At this point, who knows? As Rorty himself once famously said, « Time will tell; but epistemology won’t. Insofar as this appears to be the kind of response that Rorty wished to elicit, I guess I’m in accord.

Follow these links to watch part one and part two of the video recording of Rorty’s lecture. Priester defends a way of integrating military and criminal howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 for defining transnational terrorist organizations.

Satterthwaite examines arguments in favor of outsourcing torture, and finds them wanting. Pape argues that « Religious fanaticism does not explain why the world leader in suicide terrorism is the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. To advance our understanding of this growing phenomenon, this study collects the universe of suicide Help i can’t write my essay attacks worldwide from toin all.

In contrast to the existing explanations, this study shows that suicide terrorism follows a strategic logic, one specifically designed to coerce modern liberal democracies to make significant territorial concessions.

Intermediate Commentary on the Concept of the Political » is available online from TelosSpring The essay presents a historical analysis of the modern development of irregular flash flood scene in your neighbourhood essay including what we would now call terrorists as elements in the theory and practice of political strategy and military tactics.

The study records an emerging optimism that suggests that the GWOT is winning the hearts and minds of leading U. David argues that although targeted killings have « not appreciably diminished the costs of terrorist attacks and may have even increased them, » nevertheless the practice is justifiable as a means of « providing retribution and revenge for a population under siege, » and because it « may, over the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 term, help create conditions for a more secure Israel.

The Case of Qaed Salim Sinan al-Harethi, » prepared for the 5th Global Conference on War, Virtual War and Human Security, BudapestAvery Plaw argues that « while there is a strong case for the legality of the al-Harethi operation, this case relies on elements that may not apply to many other cases. The al-Harethi case thus helps to define the legal limits of targeted killing. When examined in their terms, the Bush Doctine is best understood as an ethically hypocritical and shortsighted international discursive strategy.

Its use of moralistic language in demonizing ‘rogue states’ for purely amoral purposes is normatively incoherent and discursively unsustainable. If it is a strategically rational piece of international communication, it seems designed to undermine globally shared normative howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 for the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 of short-term unilateral military advantage. Strauss Center for International Security and Law hosted a panel discussion about the task of reforming the government’s approach to military detentions If one rejects this legitimacy, one must object to all killing in war, targeted and non-targeted alike, and thus not support the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2, which is criticized here, that targeted killings are particularly disturbing from a moral point of view.

Prieto argues that « sharp disagreements over national security and civil liberties, as well as errors and overreach in U. The study recommends that the United States reexamine the scope and limits of its war against al-Qaeda, treating national security and the protection of individual liberties as coequal objectives. Glazier argues that « Good faith application of law of war rules.

Beyond the Gates of Liberty? Brunstetter howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 the idea of the evil of howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 seriously, yet gives Las Casas the final word of warning: Federal government’s strategic use of preventive counterterrorism prosecutions, « the entrapment doctrine must be restructured to keep FBI counterterrorism efforts targeted and focused and to safeguard innocent First Amendment activity from the reach of highly inchoate offenses, which are aggressively pursued with undercover informants.

Review of International Affairs, Volume 17, Number 1,Anne Schwenkenbecher offers a critique of Walzer’s account of extended essay religion emergencies, and argues that « the supreme emergency exemption justifies the resort to terrorism against innocents to avert moral disasters such as genocide and ethnic cleansing, provided that the criteria of last resort, proportionality and howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 declaration are satisfied.

Utilizing a recent UAS strike in Pakistan, the article then reviews the international law framework applicable to the use of armed UAS. The article then considers the associated targeting principles applicable to such a strike, exploring how in some ways UAS strikes are preferable compared to traditional aerial bombing, but in others less so.

Rise of the Drones: Paradigm Choice and Targeted Killings in Counterterrorism Operations, » Adam Ross Pearlman « briefly surveys the legal authorities and implications for the targeted killings of terror suspects howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 each paradigm: Among the Arawaks, mass suicides began, with cassava poison.

Infants were killed to save them from the Spaniards. In two howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2, through murder, mutilation, or suicide, half of theIndians on Haiti howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 dead. When it became clear that there was no howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 left, the Indians were taken as slave labor on huge estates, known later as encomiendas.

They were worked at a ferocious howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2, and died by the thousands. By the yearthere were perhaps fifty thousand Indians left. Bythere were five hundred. A report of the year shows none of the original Arawaks or their descendants left on the island.

The chief source-and, on many matters the only source-of information about what happened on the islands after Columbus came is Bartolome las Casas, who, as a young priest, participated in the conquest of Cuba.

For a time he owned a plantation on which Indian slaves worked, but he gave that up and became a vehement critic of Spanish cruelty. Las Casas transcribed Columbus’s journal and, in his fifties, began a multivolume term paper assistance of the Indies. In it, he describes the Indians. They are agile, he says, and can swim long distances, especially the women.

They are not completely peaceful, because they do battle from time to time with other tribes, but their casualties seem small, and they fight when they are individually moved to do so because of some grievance, not on the orders of captains or kings. Women in Indian society were treated so well as to startle the Spaniards. Las Casas describes sex relations: Marriage laws are non-existent men and howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 alike choose their mates and leave them as they please, without offense, jealousy or anger.

They multiply in great abundance; pregnant howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 work to the last minute and give birth almost painlessly; up the next howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2, they bathe in the river and are as clean and healthy as before giving birth.

If they tire of their men, they give themselves abortions with herbs that force stillbirths, covering their shameful parts with leaves or cotton cloth; although on the whole, Indian men and women look upon total howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 with as much casualness as we look upon a man’s head or at his hands.

The Indians, Las Casas says, have no religion, at least no temples. They live in large communal bell-shaped buildings, housing up to people at one time They prize bird howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 of various colors, beads made of fishbones, and green and white stones with which they adorn their ears and lips, but they put no value on gold and other precious things.

They lack all manner of commerce, neither buying nor selling, and rely exclusively on their howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 environment for maintenance. They are extremely generous with their possessions and by the same token covet the possessions of their friends and expect the same How to write a cover letter for the body shop of liberality.

In Book Two of his History of the Indies, Las Casas who at first urged replacing Indians by black slaves, thinking edit my paragraph were stronger and would survive, but later relented when he saw the effects on blacks tells about the treatment of the Indians by the Spaniards.

It is a unique account and deserves to be quoted at length: But our work was to exasperate, ravage, kill, mangle and destroy; small wonder, then, if they tried to kill one of us now and then The admiral, it is true, was blind as those who came after him, and he was so anxious to please the King that he committed irreparable crimes against the Indians Las Casas tells how the Spaniards « grew more conceited every day » and after a while refused to walk any distance.

They « rode the backs of Indians if they were in a hurry » or were carried on hammocks by Indians running in relays. The Spaniards « thought nothing of knifing Indians by howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 and twenties and of cutting slices off them to test the sharpness of their blades. And when they ran off into the hills they were found and killed. So, Las Casas reports, « they suffered and died in the mines and other labors in desperate silence, knowing not a soul in the world to whom they could howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 for help.

After each six or eight months’ work in the mines, which was the time required of each crew to dig enough gold for melting, up to a third of the men died. While the men were sent many miles away to the mines, the wives remained to work the soil, forced into the excruciating job of digging and making thousands of hills for cassava plants. Thus husbands and wives were together only once every eight or ten months and when they met they were so exhausted and depressed on both sides As for the newly born, they died early because their howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2, overworked and famished, had no milk to nurse them, and for this reason, while I was in Cuba, children died in three months.

Some howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 even drowned their babies from sheer desperation My eyes have seen these acts so foreign to human nature, and now I tremble as I write. When he arrived on Hispaniola inLas Casas says, « there were 60, howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 living on Research paper topics on genetically modified food island, including the Indians; so that from toover three million people had perished from war, slavery, and the mines.

Who in future generations will believe this? I myself howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 it as a knowledgeable eyewitness can hardly believe it That beginning, when you read Las Casas-even if his figures are howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 were there 3 million Indians to begin with, as he says, or less than a million, as some historians have calculated, or 8 million as others now believe?

When we read the history books given Aauw dissertation fellowship 2015 children in the United States, it all starts with heroic adventure-there is no bloodshed-and Columbus Day is a celebration. Past the elementary and high schools, there are only occasional hints of something else.

Samuel Eliot Morison, the Harvard historian, was the most distinguished writer on Columbus, the author of a multivolume biography, and was himself a sailor who retraced Columbus’s route across the Atlantic. In his popular book Christopher Columbus, Mariner, written inhe tells about the enslavement and the killing: In the book’s last paragraph, Morison sums up his view of Columbus: He had his faults and his defects, but they were largely the defects of the qualities that made him great-his indomitable will, his superb faith in God and in his own mission as the Christ-bearer to lands beyond the seas, his stubborn persistence despite neglect, poverty and discouragement.

But there was no flaw, no dark side to the most outstanding and essential of all his qualities-his howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2. One can lie outright about the past. Or one can omit facts which might lead to unacceptable conclusions. He refuses to lie about Columbus. He does not omit the story of mass murder; indeed he describes it howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 the harshest word one can use: But he does something else-he howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 the truth quickly and goes on to other things more important to him.

Outright lying or quiet omission takes the risk of discovery which, when made, might arouse the reader to rebel against the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2. To state the facts, however, and then to bury them in a mass of other information is to say to the reader with a certain infectious calm: It is not that the historian can avoid emphasis of some facts and not of others.

This is as natural to him as to the mapmaker, who, in order to produce a usable drawing for practical purposes, must first flatten and distort the shape of the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2, then choose out of the bewildering mass of geographic information those things needed for the purpose of this or that particular map.

My gcse science coursework mark scheme edexcel cannot be against selection, simplification, emphasis, which are inevitable for both cartographers and historians.

But the map-maker’s distortion is a technical necessity for a common purpose shared by all people who need maps. The historian’s distortion is more than technical, it is ideological; it is released into a world of contending interests, where any chosen emphasis supports whether the historian means to or not some kind of interest, whether economic or political or racial or national or sexual. Furthermore, this ideological interest is not openly expressed in the way a mapmaker’s technical interest is obvious « This is a Mercator projection for long-range navigation-for short-range, you’d better use a different projection ».

No, it is presented as if all readers of history had a common interest which historians serve to the best of their ability. This is not intentional howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 the historian has been trained in a howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 in which education and knowledge are put forward as technical problems of excellence and not as tools for Case study data analysis methods social classes, races, nations.

To emphasize the heroism of Columbus and his successors as navigators and discoverers, and to de-emphasize their genocide, is not a technical necessity but an ideological choice. It serves- unwittingly-to justify what was done. My point is not that we must, in telling history, accuse, judge, condemn Columbus in absentia. It is too late for that; it would be a useless scholarly exercise in morality. But the easy acceptance of atrocities as a deplorable but necessary price to pay for progress Hiroshima and Vietnam, to save Western civilization; Kronstadt and Hungary, to howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 socialism; nuclear proliferation, to save us all -that is howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 with us.

One reason these atrocities are still with us is that we have learned to bury them in a mass of other facts, as radioactive wastes are buried in containers in the earth. We have learned to give them exactly the same proportion of attention that teachers and writers often give them in the most respectable of classrooms and textbooks. This learned sense of moral proportion, coming from the apparent objectivity of the scholar, is accepted more easily than when it comes from politicians at press conferences.

It is therefore more deadly. The treatment of heroes Columbus and their victims the Arawaks -the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 acceptance of conquest and murder in the name of progress-is only one howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 of a certain approach to history, in which the past is told from the point of view of governments, conquerors, diplomats, leaders.

It is as if they, like Columbus, deserve universal acceptance, as if they-the Founding Fathers, Jackson, Lincoln, Wilson, Rahway high school homework page Kennedy, the leading members of Congress, the famous Justices of the Supreme Court-represent the nation as a whole.

The pretense is that there really is such a thing as « the United States, » subject to occasional conflicts and quarrels, but fundamentally a community of people with common interests.

It is as if there really essay grammar fixer a « national interest » represented in the Constitution, in howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 expansion, in the laws passed by Congress, the decisions of the courts, the development of capitalism, the culture of education and the mass media.

From his standpoint, the « peace » that Europe had before the French Revolution was « restored » by the diplomacy of a few national leaders. But for howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 workers in England, farmers in France, colored people in Asia and Africa, women and children everywhere except in the upper classes, it was a world of conquest, violence, hunger, exploitation-a world not restored but disintegrated.

My viewpoint, in telling the history of the United States, is different: Nations are not communities and never have been, The history of any country, presented as the history of a family, conceals fierce conflicts of interest sometimes exploding, most often repressed between conquerors and conquered, masters and slaves, capitalists and workers, dominators and dominated in race and sex.

And in such a world of conflict, a world of victims and executioners, it is the job of thinking people, as Albert Camus suggested, not to be on the side of the executioners. Thus, in that inevitable taking of sides which comes from selection and emphasis in history, I prefer to try to tell the story of the discovery of America from the viewpoint of the Arawaks, of the Constitution from the standpoint of the slaves, of Andrew Jackson as seen by the Cherokees, of the Civil War as seen by the New York Irish, of the Mexican war as seen by the deserting soldiers of Scott’s army, of the rise of industrialism as seen by the young women in the Lowell textile mills, of the Spanish-American war as seen by the Cubans, the conquest of the Philippines as seen by black soldiers on Luzon, the Gilded Age as seen by howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 farmers, the First World War as seen by socialists, the Second World War as seen by pacifists, the New Deal as seen by howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 in Harlem, the postwar American empire as seen by peons in Latin America.

And so on, to the limited extent that any one person, however he or she strains, can « see » history from the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 of others. My point is not to grieve for the victims and denounce the executioners. Those howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2, that anger, cast into the past, deplete our moral energy for the present. And the lines are not always clear. In the long run, the oppressor is also a victim. In the short run and so far, human history has consisted only of short runsthe victims, themselves desperate and tainted with the culture that oppresses them, turn on other victims.

Still, understanding the complexities, this book will be skeptical of governments and their attempts, through politics and culture, to ensnare ordinary people in a giant web of nationhood pretending to a common interest.

I will try not to overlook the cruelties that victims inflict on one another as they are jammed together in the howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 of the system. I don’t want to romanticize them. But I do remember in rough paraphrase a statement I once read: But to think that history-writing must aim simply to recapitulate the failures that dominate the past is to make historians collaborators in an endless cycle of defeat.

If history is to be creative, to anticipate a possible future without denying the past, it should, I believe, emphasize new possibilities by disclosing those hidden episodes of the past when, even if in Cc essay rubric flashes, people showed their ability to resist, to join together, occasionally to win.

I am supposing, or perhaps only hoping, that our future may be found in the past’s fugitive moments of compassion rather than in its solid centuries of warfare. That, being as blunt as I can, is my approach to the history of the United States.

The reader may as well know that before going on. It built enormous constructions from stone tools and human labor, developed a writing system and a priesthood.

It also engaged in let us not overlook this the ritual killing of thousands of people as sacrifices to the gods. The cruelty cheap academic essay writing white man came ashore, with strange beasts horsesclad in iron, it was thought that he was the legendary Aztec man-god who had died three hundred years before, with the promise to return-the mysterious Quetzalcoatl.

And so they welcomed him, with munificent hospitality. That was Hernando Cortes, come from Spain with an expedition financed by merchants and landowners and blessed by the deputies of God, with one obsessive goal: In the mind of Montezuma, the king of the Aztecs, there must have been a certain doubt about whether Cortes was indeed Quetzalcoatl, because he sent a hundred runners to Cortes, bearing enormous treasures, gold and silver wrought into objects of fantastic beauty, but at the same time begging him to go back.

The painter Durer a few years later described what he saw just arrived in Spain from that expedition-a sun of gold, a moon of silver, worth a fortune.

Cortes then began his march of death from town to town, using deception, turning Aztec against Aztec, howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 with the kind of deliberateness that accompanies a strategy-to paralyze the will of the population by a sudden frightful deed. And so, in Cholulu, he invited the headmen of the Cholula howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 to the square.

And when they came, with thousands of unarmed retainers, Cortes’s small army of Spaniards, posted around the square with cannon, armed with crossbows, mounted on horses, massacred them, down to the last man. Then they looted the city and moved on. When their cavalcade of murder was over they were in Mexico City, Montezuma was howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2, and the Aztec civilization, shattered, was in the hands of the Spaniards. All this is told in the Spaniards’ own accounts.

The people who established Israel howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 extremely violent. Cohen said that his Jewish blood made him such a fervent supporter of Israel, but he was likely in it for the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2, as usual. Cohen got a howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 of them in bed together and played it for Jimmy Hoffa, the Teamster boss who later received cement shoes from the Mafia and who was then howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 from Attorney General Bobby Kennedy.

Monroe was supposed to elicit it during pillow talk. Monroe was controlled by mobsters and was kept on all manner of narcotic. When she became increasingly uncontrollable and potentially dangerous if she publicly talked about what was happening, she was murdered. Gary had Cohen under surveillance, and caught him and Begin having a conversation in Yiddish in a diner. They were talking about Kennedy, Israel, and how much money Kennedy was wasting on the Peace Corps and other programs.

Piper was a reporter for The Spotlight, which I subscribed to for years. It has understandably been described as a neo-Nazi, anti-Semitic publication. The culmination of Gary’s book was uncovering a vast Jewish crime organization. It is different from the Italian Mafia, as its members are judges, politicians, and other public figures.

It is a highly intelligent crime organization, which uses the pen more than the gun to achieve its goals. The most powerful criminals do not break the laws: Gary suffered greatly at the hands of Jewish gangsters. Consequently, I believe that he took his Jewish theorizing a little too far, but it was understandable.

During my days with Dennis and the horror that I lived through, I thought that policemen and lawyers were among the lowest forms of life. I have since revised my views, but I understand how brutal treatment at the hands of Jewish gangsters can lead to overgeneralizations regarding the Jewish people.

The flocking of Jews to Southern California was just one more chapter in their long journeys, as they tried to find a place in the Christian world where they would not be discriminated against or murdered en masse. Consequently, Jews entered new industries such as the entertainment industry in Hollywood, and some took advantage of Prohibition, just as Italian criminals did. Cohen, Siegel, and Lansky were part of a uniquely American phenomenon.

What Gary stumbled into – a Jewish underworld where the criminals were bankers, judges, lawyers, politicians, and others – is an understandable Jewish variation of organized crime. Noam Chomsky stated the same thing. Gypsies were subject to the same extermination policies as Jews were and died alongside them in the same death camps.

Far right scholarship on the subject is extremely biased and often appallingly bad. I believe everything that Gary said he saw, including his meeting with John Tower, and Jews do not come up in the Tower conversation at all. Testimony from other participants with military backgrounds, such as Robert Tosh Plumlee and Richard Case Nagell who use the same alias that Oswald didcan provide further insight into that milieu. Officialdom never tells the whole story in areas such as these, no matter how much it pretends to.

I am privy to operations that are still classified, which I learned of from participants close to me. Many years later, I saw aspects of the issue being declassified, but there was plenty still being kept secret, and will probably never be publicly revealed. This is common with the USA’s federal governmentand what ends up being declassified often shows how badly the government lied to the public.

That just comes with the territory of such operations. The privatized operations of the Global Controllers and others are almost never revealed in any depth at all, and revelations from people such as John Perkins barely scratch the surface. The USA’s government during the 19th century was more openly corrupt than in the 20th century.

To the Filipinos, it mattered little if the usurpers were Spaniards, Americans, or the Japanese.

While the USA was still essay writing company in neocolonialism with the outright theft and fabrication of Panama, separating it from Colombiaand then the USA immediately split it with the Panama Canal Zone.

Panama was a free nat ion in howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 only. In the Panama operation, Cromwell ran a syndicate largely funded by J. Morganand the American taxpayer was ultimately swindled by their subterfuge, in the biggest single payment that the USA’s government had made to that time. Both men were partners in Sullivan and Cromwell.

Allen and John Foster were particularly fond of Nazi Germany and heavily invested in it during the s. The Cromwell-Dulles empire was quite active in Latin America. The s also saw the USA’s howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 of Korea, and millions were killed. What will the future rationale be? The same howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 are being killed and the same oil companies are salivating at the prospects of exploiting the region.

Lemnitzer thoroughly distrusted civilian politicians and believed that the military should run the American government. Lemnitzer knew it would be a disaster, but remained how to proofread effectively What kinds of plans are in the Northwoods documents?

An early idea was to howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 a fake attack on the Guantanamo Bay naval base in Cuba. The Northwoods ideas became increasingly extreme, and one plan was blowing up the rocket that John Glenn was about to fly in and somehow blame Cuba.

They planned plane hijackings and bombings of American cities. The plane would self-destruct over Cuba to make it appear as if Cuba shot it down. When McNamara was confronted with the Northwoods revelations, he denied that Lemnitzer ever showed him the plan, which may have been howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2.

Cooler heads fortunately prevailed. Similarly, after the USA dropped atom bombs on Japan, there were still die-hard Japanese generals who rejected surrender. The man who designed the kamikaze attack strategy proposed a post-Hiroshima plan to sacrifice about 20 Cause and effect essay on living together before marriage Japanese citizens in a special kamikaze attack. Once again, sanity prevailed.

Whether the Northwoods plan was ever implemented, or capable of implementation, is not the point Contoh essay rencana studi beasiswa lpdp am making.

The point is that the Northwoods plan was eerily similar to the tale that Gary reported. I know somebody who worked for the U. Navy inand he told me that some of his work was used by the Navy to fabricate the Gulf of Tonkin incident. Fabricating inc idents to justify invasion is a very old game. Michael Ruppert and others have presented compelling evidence that the World Trade Center attacks had prior knowledge by many people, perhaps extending to the White House.

He first published his book in Gary was basically run out of California for his trouble. Because I knew Gary a little, and he and I lived in the same milieu for a while bearing the brunt of evil served up by the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 peopleand I got to see his integrity and helpfulness in action, I have always believed what he reported as his howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2.

In the early 21st century, a policeman who actually witnessed events that Gary wrote about contacted me and verified their authenticity. That policeman also thought that Gary’s writings about Jewish gangsters and generalizations about the Jewish people were over-the-top, but in the aftermath of the USA’s invasion of Iraq, with the flacking for war led by Jewish neoconservatives such online writing services Richard Perle and Paul Wolfowitz, that howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 began to openly wonder if Gary was right.

My astronaut colleague Brian O’Leary once briefed Perle and Wolfowitzalong howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 other military establishment figures, and he thought that they all acted strangely. In that regard, Gary is like Ralph McGeheeRodney Stich and Dennis Leeand he will always have my greatest howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 for his courage and willingness to face the dark howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 of our vaunted system and try to do something about it.

There are not many like Gary, whatever extremes of theorizing his arduous Dissertation database germany may have led him to engage in. The Northwoods documents and the plans for framing Cuba have not come into public awareness until relatively recently. The revelations of what really happened between the USA and Cuba during the s did not start becoming public knowledge until the s, after the Soviet Union collapsed and documents began to come forward from the former Soviet Union.

Ironically, researchers have often encountered more document availability in the former Soviet Union than they have in the USA. Some revelations have been chilling, such as the fact that during the Cuban Missile Crisis, when JFK administration hawks wanted to invade Cuba, there were already numerous nuclear-armed missiles in Cuba, aimed at the USA and Thesis on wireless sensor networks to go.

The Soviet commander in charge of the Cuban nukes admitted that if the USA had invaded Cuba, he would have fired the nukes.

It is the closest that the world has ever come to a nuclear holocaust, and it was only JFK’s overriding his hawks that kept a very short-lived World War III from happening. In light of those revelations, a plan to frame Castro to justify invading Cuba is right out of Dr. They both had to fight their own people more than the « enemy, » and JFK may have paid with his life for trying to end the Cold War. The howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 Cuba angle was certainly not in public awareness in orand I believe that only with the Northwoods documents, which did not come to American public awareness untilthat the framing Cuba angle has become publicly known as government howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2.

That is because the American public was so trusting that they would swallow anything that officialdom told them. Whether that was in howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 true, it is reasonable to think that Hunt and friends operated under that assumption.

The evidence tends to support the idea that Oswald sat in the lunchroom the entire time period surrounding the assassination. The likeliest series of events was that Oswald was told to go to the lunchroom and await further orders, or perhaps wait for a phone call. It is hard to say when Oswald realized that he had been set up, but it was probably less than a minute after JFK was shot. The story generally agreed upon is that Oswald left the book depository before police sealed the building and walked seven blocks to catch a bus.

He soon left the bus and took a howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2. Tippit was murdered, or soon afterward. He always referred to himself as a patsy, which is not the stance that one would expect for an assassin.

The photographic record in Oswald’s military and CIA files may well be fabricated or altered. The Warren Commission’s lead counsel, J. Allen Dulles is one of the primary assassination suspects in JFK research circles, and he essentially led the investigation.

He had the section edited out of the brief that showed that Japanese-American citizens were not considered a threat to the USA. The declassified version of the brief proved McCloy’s deception, which likely resulted from his racist views, but that act has competition in the infamy department.

McCloy was centrally responsible for « rehabilitating » many Nazis and bringing them into prominent positions in the CIA and elsewhere, which led to programs such as MKUltra.

  • It is therefore more deadly.
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  • How Democracies Can Defeat Totalitarian Political Islam , » recommends a form of democratic internationalism as the key component of a workable political solution.

McCloy initially howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 that the Warren Report belabored the Magic Bullet theory on thin evidence, but his good friend Allen Dulles convinced him of Oswald’s guilt. I consider it highly relevant that in 2in an event marking the 50th anniversary of JFK’s assassination, Robert Kennedy’s son admitted that the Kennedy family never believed the Warren Commission’s conclusion, and that Robert Kennedy considered the Warren Report to be a  » shoddy piece of craftsmanship , » and that the CIA and Mafia were probably involved in JFK’s death.

Gary was a policeman and investigator, with a solid career going until he ran afoul of the howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 that run Ventura County. They were about the first worthy discussions that I had seen of that issue, and I discovered that Gary passed away in This essay will deal with online sentence structure checker one aspect of the JFK assassination evidence in detail, and people can make up their own minds regarding the truth of the issue, and see if it is worth pursuing further.

It is difficult to imagine a murder investigation that would have been carried out with more zeal and thoroughness than that one. Paine let the police come in and search, even though they did not have a search warrant.

Lee’s possessions were largely stored in Ms. Paine’s garage, which was attached to the house. The police thoroughly searched the University of new hampshire supplement essay that day and seized many items.

When the Dallas police searched the Paine’s home and garage on the day of the assassination, they did not discover the photographs, even though they seized many items, including two cameras. In the two inventories that the police made of Oswald’s howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2, those photos are not mentioned. Also, detective Rose, the man who discovered the photos, testified that he found two negatives. Only one has ever been produced a vast amount of evidence disappeared during the JFK assassination investigation [27].

There is a great deal of evidence of altered testimony by the Warren Commissiontoo. Michael testified that he saw a backyard photo on the day of the assassination.

In one of n umerous anomalies regarding the backyard photos, according to the notes made Format of speech essay spm shown the photographs at a 6: According to the official documentation, Oswald was being asked about the backyard photographs before they were officially discovered.

According to Jim Marrs’s interview of Robert and Patricia the assassination at the National Photo Lab, processing photographs for the Secret Service and FBI, they saw color transparencies of the backyard photographs in the FBI’s possession the day before they were « discovered.

Arawak men and women, naked, tawny, and full of wonder, emerged from their villages onto the island’s beaches and swam out to get a closer look at the strange big boat.

The Warren Commission’s defenders have constantly attributed such anomalies to « mistakes, » and the doubters argue that something more sinister explains them. In the ph otos, Oswald is shown holding the rifle and radical newspapers.

Another problem is the papers themselves. The two publications that Oswald held up, The Militant and The Worker, both supported the peaceful co-existence approach.

Oswald lived in the Soviet Union and was well aware of the split, and Soviet communism had embraced the peaceful co-existence approach. Trying to make a reputation as a militant by holding up those publications would be like holding up The New York Times to help establish one’s reputation as a right-wing radical.

Nearly all of the evidence presented by the Warren Commission and others to portray Oswald as some kind of communist fail pretty spectacularly. Oswald was a Marine with a security clearance, who worked on the Japanese base where the U-2 missions originated. After his discharge from the Marines inhe walked into the American embassy in Moscow to renounce his citizenship and announce his intention to become a Soviet citizen.

persuasive essay addiction also announced that he planned to tell the Soviets everything that he knew from his Marine Corps days. The captured pilot later publicly stated that Oswald may have been involved with his plane being shot down, and Oswald attended the pilot’s howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 interrogation. Like so many JFK-related witnesses, that pilot died the week before he was to testify before the House Select Committee on Assassinations « HSCA » about those events, when his helicopter ran out of fuel while flying over Ventura Countywhich is a method of murder that Gary Wean regularly encountered in Ventura County.

That is quite a « coincidence. There is a howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 amount of howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 that points to Oswald being anything other than a howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 commie Marine who somehow moved around the spook world with ease and was trained and befriended by all manner of spook and CIA asset in the years leading up to JFK’s assassination. Duringthe Edward Snowden saga has been playing, with him in political howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 in Russia and who would instantly land in an American prison if he ever came home.

At the height of the Cold War, a Marine with a security clearance moved to the Soviet Union while announcing his intentions to give the Soviets his secrets in what is arguably the greatest Marine defection ever. The next year, the plane that he worked with was downed over the Soviet Union, which became a huge howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 incident. Two years later, the defector decided to come back to the USA and was welcomed with open arms.

It greatly stretches the imagination to think that he would be treated that way if he was a genuine defector. Inwhile Oswald was in the Soviet Union, Hoover wrote a memo stating that an imposter might be using Oswald’s birth certificate. Several different people were identified as Oswald before the JFK assassination, and it appears that there were two Oswalds for a decade before the JFK assassination, and one may have helped set up the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 as a patsy. Hoover was well aware of two different Oswalds, and on the day of the assassination, the FBI seized all evidence of one of the Oswalds, and those records never made it into the official evidence.

The Oswald in custody said that he would be able to prove that those pictures were fakes. All he was able to prove was his howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2, as Jack Ruby gunned him down the next day. With Oswald dead and unable to defend himself, the howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 of the government and media turned, and Oswald was eventually pronounced as JFK’s lone assassin. During the how to proofread your work Commission investigation those backyard photographs became known as exhibits A and B.

Even thou gh it was probably listed in the evidence that the police seized, the negative to A has never been produced. Only the negative to B has been produced. If that ended the tale of « discovering » the photographs, it would be strange enough, but the plot gets thicker.

InGeorge de Mohrenschildt, a Russian anticommunist aristocrat who worked for CIA front organizations and took Oswald the commie under his wing and probably got him the job at the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 medical editing services discovered another version of A in his possessions after he moved back to America from Haiti.

De Mohrenschildt, who « committed suicide » immediately after the essay proofreader contacted him, did not know where the photograph came from and suspected that it was planted there to further howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 Oswald. The strange thing about de Mohrenschildt’s photo is that it is a clearer picture than the original A, and views area outside the frame of the original A.

There is wide-ranging speculation about that situation. How did de Mohrenschildt come to possess a higher quality photo than the « original, » and how was it developed? Those questions broach issues of authenticity not easily answered. To further fuel the cont roversy, another backyard photograph was discovered in the possession of the widow of Dallas policeman Roscoe White and given to the HSCA in The widow once worked for Jack Ruby, for one of many « it’s a small world » connections with the assassination.

That photograph is now known as C. The position of Oswald in C is markedly different from A or B. In C, Oswald is holding the newspapers up in the air with his right hand, and the rifle in the air with his left. Neither A nor B depict that posture. Inas police were recreating the backyard photos scenario, photos were taken using the same posture as in C. The Dallas police department obviously knew about C in In a familiar pattern, a negative disappeared from evidence and an unreported photo emerged a decade later.

The very ori gin of the photos is in question.

A People’s History of the United States Questions and Answers

What about the camera that took them? The camera allegedly used to take the photographs was an Imperial Reflex camera. How was that camera found? The Dallas police discovered a miniature Minox camera, the kind that spies used. It is about the size of a large cigarette lighter. Oswald the starving commie certainly could not afford one of those. Even stranger was the serial number that the Dallas police recorded off of that camera: Years later, Minox reported that the serial numbers of their cameras sold during were aboveOswald apparently had some vintage spy equipment.

The FBI tried to buy essay not plagiarized to reclassify the camera and it disappeared during the FBI’s investigation.

The FBI later listed it as a light meter. Gerald Posner claimed to have solved that mystery. He claimed to have interviewed Ruth Paine’s husband Michael, who said it was his camera, and one that he possessed since the ‘s. Michael Paine did classified work for Bell Helicopter, which might explain his « spy » camera. It might be innocent, but it is one more odd connection with the intelligence community, in which a howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 married to a man who did classified work for the government took in Marina Oswald, the wife of a defector.

Paine met because of Ms. Paine’s avid interest in the Russian language, or so it is said. The FBI seized a number of cameras, and the Imperial Reflex camera was not taken in the first search, nor the second, nor even a later one by the FBI, when they seized the rest of Oswald’s possessions.

The police even seized a camera that supposedly was not Oswald’s, but it was up to Oswald’s brother Robert to stumble upon that Imperial Reflex camera on December 8th,in that magical garage that kept spewing out evidence not discovered or taken in earlier searches.

The original documents show that the camera was noted in the original searchfor another investigative anomaly. That Imperial Reflex camera officially became the one that took the infamous photographs.

When Marina Oswald was first asked about the photographs, she claimed that she had never taken any. Later she would testify that she remembered one photograph being taken.

Her testimony was later amended to say she had taken two photographs, in light of the fact that two photographs were introduced into evidence. She then amended her testimony to state that she took all three photographs now known to exist. She may eventually « remember » more, because the original FBI inventory lists four of them.

There was allegedly a photo of Oswald holding the Accounting and financial management dissertation reliable witness, partly because her position was highly vulnerable and she was subject to manipulation by the authorities.

When asked when she took them, Marina originally said it was in the winter ofnearly a year before the assassination. However, the scene depicted in those photographs shows a yard in bloom. Also, the newspapers Oswald held up were not published until the spring.

After more prodding of Marina and investigation by the Warren Commission, it has been determined that the likeliest date for the howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 to have been taken was March 31st, That date corresponds to shortly after Oswald allegedly mail-ordered the rifle, pistol, and papers that he displays in those photos. Soon after the Walker incident, de Mohrenschildt met Oswald one last time, and they never met again.

There are a few problems with the alleged photo date of March March 31 may have been too early in the year for the plants and trees in the photos to be in bloom. What is more problematic about the March 31 date is Critical thinking argument the photographs were taken in bright sunshine, but the weather records for Dallas on that date show that it was cloudy with traces of rain all day.

There are a couple more oddities to consider before getting to the actual photo analysis. One is that when the FBI finally received custody of the Imperial Reflex camera in February ofit did not howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2, and when it was first shown to Marina, she was unable to identify it as belonging to her husband, even though she supposedly used it.

When she was do my essay online how to use that camera, she thought that she held it up to her face, as with most cameras, but the viewfinder in that camera was on top of it, and the camera was held at the waist.

The other oddity is that the Oswald in the photos is wearing a black shirt, black pants, and a distinctive wristwatch.

After the assassination, the investigators could not find in Oswald’s possessions the black shirt, black pants, or the wristwatch, and nobody ever remembered Oswald wearing buy assignment online wristwatch.

While performing the research for producing this web site, I had to delve into many controversial areas. The only way to resolve the issues to my satisfaction was to try ignoring what dissertation help sides had to say and evaluate the primary evidence for myself and try to become my own expert. The JFK issue was no exception. Jack White deserves credit for his analysis of the backyard photos.

White began his investigation with some expertise in photography and he devoted years to analyzing the backyard photos. The reason he did so was two-fold.

The other was that White asked for and was websites that will write essays for you advice on how to pursue the JFK evidence, and was told to become expert on just one piece of it and focus his attention there. White did so, and a fair bit of the evidence produced in this essay relied in some measure on what he discovered. White deserves credit for the work he performed.

Specifically, he has no training or expertise in the field of photogrammetrics, and all of his photogrammetric analysis is suspect.

In andI watched Wh ite post his analyses of Apollo lunar photographs to a JFK forum, to make the case that the Moon landings were faked. None of his Apollo photo analysis stood up to the slightest scrutiny. Proving his photographic analyses wanting, however, does not prove the case that the backyard photographs are genuine. Albert Einstein said that he had little respect for somebody who looked for the weakest spot of a board and repeatedly drilled holes through it.

Evidence can theoretically stand on its own, no matter who produces it. That is the scientific method’s ideal. After loo king long and hard at the evidence, I think that the most impressive evidence, as far as photographic fakery in the backyard photos is concerned, exists in four areas: Although the other evidence may provide supporting evidence of fakery, the My hero firefighter essay of evidence listed above seem the most impressive to me, and are also areas where the official explanations usually dealt howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 the evidence in an unsatisfactory manner.

InMichael T. Griffith, one of the more prominent independent JFK investigators, spent three hours interviewing photographic expert Brian Mee while examining the evidence. Mee had expertise in exactly the areas that concern the evidence discussed below. Before beginning this analysis, I will present my opinion of how the photos were probably faked, if they were faked.

The photos in evidence are probably at least one generation removed from the original composite photos, and each succeeding generation had degraded clarity, as with any analog copying process. I have long pondered that question, and I am not sure what the answer might be. The two Oswalds howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 may resolve it. Claiming that the backyard photos are genuine would eliminate that seeming contradiction, but for Oswald to howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 them fakes, and promise that he would be able to pay for someone to write my paper that they were, is significant.

It is highly possible that the rifle that Oswald allegedly ordered is not the one found in the book depository and may not even be the one in the howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2.

There argumentative essay on vaccines suspicions that the second Oswald fabricated the trail to Mexico City and Cuba.

There are several pieces of impressive evidence relating to his chin and photographic fakery. The two most impressive pieces of evidence are the shape of his chin and a line that crosses it, from one edge of his neck to the other, which looks exactly like a crop line, exactly where one might be expected.

What I doubt can be effectively disputed, however, are the mug shots of the man who was captured the day of the assassination, and who in howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 custody. Oswald tran sformed from a square-chinned guy in the backyard photos to a pointy-chinned guy. The man with the square chin on the right is Roscoe White, who possessed the C picture.

He was not able to provide even one photo of Oswald to persuasively support his point. The Cover letter construction study compared several photos of Oswald to the backyard photographs, to determine if the man in the backyard was indeed Oswald. The Penrose study concluded that the backyard photographs were genuine depictions of Oswald. The data presented for the Penrose study tells the full tale. That is extremely suspicious, as the chin was the primary area of contention.

At worst, it brings up the suspicion of fraud. Lying by omission is by far the most common method of lying. I am a professional in the creation, manipulation, and presentation of numerical data. The HSCA experts appeared to have eliminated the data that did not conform to their foregone conclusion.

Also in the images above, note the difference between where the neck, head, and bottom of the right ear meet. The man in the backyard apparently had a larger neck than the man who died in Dallas PD custody as did Roscoe White. The below im age shows approximately where the line is.

How did McCamy explain the apparent crop line? He said that it was a howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 spot. Michael Griffith has yet to meet a photographic expert who has seen a water spot run in a straight line. Spots are just that: They are circular in nature. Mee said during the Griffith interview: I howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2, this howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 be a good place to join a head to a body in a composite, in the chin area, and here we have a line in that region, and it’s supposed to be a water spot.

That kind of stretching of coincidence is typical of defenders of the official version. Conversely, they promote weak arguments to throw doubt on the sinister interpretation of the evidence, so that the official version seems at least mildly plausible.

I have seen similar argumentation in scientific disputes. One regards the extinction of the world’s megafauna, in which human agency is almost entirely responsible, while human-agency « skeptics » constantly concoct analyses that deflect the responsibility from humans onto the weather, in what seems to be kind of fraudulent arguments. Similarly, the original Global Warming « debate » was almost entirely concocted by scientists who sold their souls to the hydrocarbon lobbyand the compliant media portrayed those corporately-funded « dissidents » as having views as legitimate as those of nearly every genuine climate scientist on Earth.

The other anomaly that is extremely difficult to explain away, and Jack White is probably on the right track with his work, is that the backyard photos were all taken with the camera in virtually the same position.

The authorities manipulated her shamelessly. Many years after the assassination, she publicly stated that she believed that her husband had been framed. However, Marina had virtually no experience with taking pictures, and when she described how she took the backyard photos, it is reasonable to accept her account.

Chapter 3 of Zinn’s A People’s History of the United States discusses Bacon’s Rebellion. Bacon’s Rebellion is always complex to talk about because while it was an uprising of the masses.

According to Marina, Lee brought her into their backyard, and had her take the pictures. He advanced the film and had her take a picture. Then he walked over, took the camera from her, advanced the film and handed her the camera back.

Then she took another picture, until all four photos had been taken. The background in the backyard photos is virtually unchanged from image to image. In order for that to be the case, Marina probably could not have even moved her feet or changed where she held the camera. That is a highly unlikely scenario, given how Marina said that the photo session was performed. However, the apparent differences in perspective were so small that they almost certainly had to have been done on a tripod.

White reported that he was able to exactly align the backgrounds by that technique. In copying A from one generation to another, the slightest howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 in the planar alignment of the copying camera and photo can produce the differences that can be seen in the howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 between A, B, and C.

I would like to see some hits his lips.

Because of the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 of his head in B, the nose shadow should not have hit his lip in the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 place.

He provided a novel explanation in which the head twisted and tilted, to keep the shadow hitting the same spot on his lip. Once again, McCamy invoked a fortuitous set of improbable circumstances to explain away an anomaly that suggested photographic fakery. Because the mannequin no longer looked into the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 when the desired shadow was achieved, such an analysis cannot be accepted as explaining the anomaly.

What appears more likely is that the same head was pasted onto the different pictures, but the forgery was not sophisticated enough to account for different howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 angles.

Also strongly supporting the pasted-head hypothesis, the head is the same size in the photos, although the body size changes. Also, in comparing A and C, the only part of the Catcher in the rye argumentative essay that are identical are Oswald’s head.

How are those anomalies even possible if the photographs are genuine? One area of evidence deals with photogrammetrics, and Jack White made the case that the howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 on his body did not fall in the same line as the shadows on his face, for further evidence of fakery.

Ina college professor, Hany Farid, who is now known to work for the FBI, produced an analysis of the lighting below Oswald’s chin and the shadow cast behind his body in A, and determined that they came from the same light source, so he concluded that the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 photographs were genuine.

His analysis was predictably ballyhooed by the media, but no serious investigator considered it anything more than another publicity stunt by the howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2, and in that instance by an admitted asset of the FBI.

That kind of « analysis » howards zinn’s thesis chapter 2 the conspiracy suspicions even stronger, not allay them. White thinks that Oswald is standing to the right of his center of gravity, which should not be possible. However, still photos catch people who are never quite still, and « Oswald » could have been shifting his weight as the photo was taken, producing the effect. Has anybody pursued what Jack attempted, to reproduce the scene and use sophisticated photogrammetric analysis, to determine what the real height of the man in the photos was, or how long his rifle was?

See a Problem?

If anybody has done it, I have not heard of it. I think that the evidence is persuasive, however, that from the chin up it is Oswald, and from the chin down it is somebody else. Whose howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 might that be? Jack White investigated the Roscoe White connection. Roscoe White was on the howard zinn’s thesis chapter 2 ship to Japan as Oswald during their Marine days. They both may have worked for military intelligence. That was how it made its way into the evidence.

The A de how to get a reluctant child to do homework hrenschildt photo is difficult to account for. Brian Mee thought this suspicious, as do I. If the photos were forged as Mee thought they were, the de Mohrenschildt photo perfectly fits the evidence. If the backyard photos are fakes, the likeliest way to do it was to take the original photos with the highest resolution cameras possible and then perform the forgery work.

Then the forged images would be photographed at least once more, as removing the images from their original generation would hide much of the evidence of forgery. The photographs will also lose their resolution in successive generations and new academic writing sites grainier. Also, in successive generations, the image will often get slightly cropped along the way. The HSCA investigators performed tests such as measuring the depth of the negative and grain analysis, which would have been of questionable validity if they were generations removed from the original, altered photos.